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Thursday, June 11, 2009

Physio's Dictionary : A

Physio's Dictionary : A

Accessory movement
Joint movements which cannot be performed voluntarily or in isolation by the patient.

Achilles tendinitis
Inflammation of the Achilles tendon, particularly the peritendon. It may be predisposed to this type of condition because of biomechanical, muscular, training and footwear factors.

Acromio-clavicular (AC) joint
Joint between the acromion process of the scapula and the clavicle.

Needle, laser, electroacupuncture or pressure (shiatsu) can be beneficial in treatment and management of a variety of conditions, primarily to alter pain threshold and/or pain perception.

Adductor tendinitis
Commonly occurring in athletes and horse riders, with localised pain over the tendinous origin of adductor longus from the pubis or at its musculotendinous junction.



Anabolic steroids
Derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone and are used as performance enhancing, to increase muscle bulk and strength. Can be taken orally or as an injectable.

Pain relief which may be achieved by use of medication (e.g. aspirin, paracetamol or codeine), modalities (e.g. ultrasound, interferential and laser) or acupuncture.

Ankle sprain
Usually an over stretch of the lateral (outside) ligament of the ankle joint. Can be of varying degrees, from minor over stretch to complete rupture.

Ankylosing spondylitis
A disease process of unknown aetiology, characterised by the presence of bilateral sacroiliitis with inflammatory changes in the spinal joints. The onset is most common in males in their late teens to early twenties. As the name suggests, it is a process which results in a gradual stiffening of the axial skeleton, sacroiliac joints and pubic symphysis.

Annulus fibrosis
This is the peripheral portion of the intervertebral disc, consisting of collagen fibres arranged in a highly ordered pattern. The posterior fibres of the collagen lamellae are thinner and more tightly packed, hence the posterior aspect of the annulus fibrosis is thinner than the rest of the annulus.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
Intra-articular ligament of the knee, attaching on the anterior portion of the tibial plateau extending upwards and posteriorly to the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle. Very frequently injured during twisting type sports (e.g. Australian Rules football, soccer), or those that involve rapid deceleration (e.g. netball). Extrinsic trauma also has a large part to play in ACL injuries.

Anti-inflammatory medication
See Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs).

Apley's test
A test of meniscal integrity comprising a compression of the knee (in 90� of flexion, with patient lying prone) and then performing both medial and lateral rotation.

Apophyseal joint
See Zygapophyseal joint.

Apprehension test
A test that places the joint in a position that would simulate subluxation or dislocation, with the degree of "positivity" being judged by the level of "apprehension" on the patient's face.

Using an intra-articular camera to assist, this less invasive procedure allows the Orthopaedic Surgeon to assess, repair or reconstruct various tissues both within and around joints. Now used preferentially to "open" procedures, when permitted.

Articular cartilage
Covers the ends of bones and allows the distribution of compressive loads over the cross section of bones, as well as providing a near frictionless and wear resistant surface for joint movement.

Usually attributed to muscle, it is a shrinking in size, usually following a period of disuse or immobility.

Avascular necrosis
Death of tissue due to complete depletion of blood supply. Commonly seen with fractures of the femoral neck, leading to death of the head of the femur. May also be seen in scaphoid and navicular fractures.

Usually caused when a muscle is forcefully stretched beyond its freely available range of motion, or when it meets a sudden unexpected resistance while contracting forcefully. Can also occur in ligament injuries, where the insertion of the ligament may pull some bone off when it is damaged.

This is the main outgrowth of a neurone and is dependent on the cell body.

Axoplasmic flow
This is continually moving cytoplasm within the neurone and provides material synthesized by the cell body to meet the physiological requirements of the cell body, the axon and the target tissues. Disruption to axoplasmic flow results in diminished performance of the neurone.

taken from : http://members.optusnet.com.au/physio/glossa_m.html

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